Plant Deficiency

 

BORON

FUNCTION:
  • Essential for seed and fruit development.
  • Important in tissue respiration and cell division, pollination, carbohydrate synthesis and transport.
  • Affects flowering, pollen germination, fruiting, cell division, nitrogen metabolism and hormone movement.
  • Helps in use of nutrients and regulates other nutrients.
  • Tends to keep calcium in a soluble form.

    DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS:

  • Slows and stunts growth.
  • Causes distorted and dead growing tips (including apical buds), hollow stems and deformed fruit.
  • Death occurs on growing tips and root tips.
  • Failure to set seed
  • Storage organ development is impaired and stems crack or are hollow.
  • Young leaves affected first.
  • Rough patches on skin surfaces.

    PLANT TAKEN BY:
    Soil and leaves


    DEFICIENCY RECOVERY BY:
  • BOROSOFT(20% B) , Sources are manure, organic matter
CALCIUM

      FUNCTION:
  • Cell growth and division.
  • Important for root growth, especially root tips.
  • Involved in root and leaf development.
  • Responsible for strong growth, important in fruit set .
  • Nitrogen assimilation.
  • Counteracts effect of alkali salts and organic acids within a plant.

      DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS:

  • Failure of terminal bud to grow; inhibition of bud growth.
  • Causes poorly developed roots with weak tips and reduced growth.
  • Young leaves are distorted with hooked tips and curled margins.
  • Death of root tips.
  • Weak growth. Black spot on fruits.
  • Blossom-end rot of many fruits; pits on root vegetables.

    PLANT TAKEN BY:

    Soil

DEFICIENCY RECOVERY BY:
Apply MICROCEL or dolomitic lime, gypsum and superphosphate. Another source lists calcium sulfate, calcium nitrate and calcium carbonate.

CARBON

FUNCTION:
Basic building block of life.
Important in manufacture of sugar during photosynthesis.
Combines with H and O to form carbohydrates for respiration.
Plants use light energy to convert atmospheric carbon (CO2) into biological carbon (simple sugars).

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS:
Plants take up whatever carbon they need; no carbon would mean death.

PLANT TAKEN BY:
Air. (Absorbed as CO2 from atmosphere during photosynthesis)

DEFICIENCY RECOVERY BY:
No fertilizer

COPPER

FUNCTION:
Necessary for production of proteins.
Essential in several enzyme systems (proteins), particularly in new tissues.
Important for reproductive growth.
plant resists diseases..
Helps utilize proteins.
Aids in root metabolism.
Promotes long storage.
Connected with respiration and photosynthesis.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS:
Symptoms vary, although mostly plants are stunted.
New growth is small, misshapen and wilted.
Younger leaf tips may be yellow at edge; growing tips may form rosettes.
Older leaves develop chlorosis.
Wilting is usually first symptom to occur in young tips, buds and shoots.
Growing tip dies and fruit is small and imperfect due to failure of fertilization and fruit set.

PLANT TAKEN BY:
Soil and leaves

DEFICIENCY RECOVERY BY:
AXIS-Cu or ENERGY-18 or Copper sulfate or other copper salts.

IRON

FUNCTION:
Required for oxygen and energy transfer, plant enzyme functions and photosynthesis.
Essential to chlorophyll production.
Involved in formation of many compounds.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS:
Young leaves are small and chlorotic, often with green along the veins.
Dead spots may develop between veins.
Leaves drop and dry prematurely.
Total bleaching of foliage.
Poorly drained, oxygen-deficient soil

PLANT TAKEN BY:
Soil and leaves.

DEFICIENCY RECOVERY BY:
AXIS-Fe or Energy-18 or AXIS Fe(EDDHA) or ferrous sulfate, or ferrous ammonium sulfate.

MEGNESIUM

FUNCTION:
Essential in chlorophyll production (photosynthesis), formation of amino acids and vitamins.
Essential in formation of fats and sugars.
Important in cell multiplication and seed production.
Important in most enzyme reactions.
Helps give plants their green color.
Helps activate many plant enzymes needed for growth vital to chlorophyll production, for food transport and manufacture of sugar, fat and oil.


DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS:
Different symptoms in different plants, but commonly causes leaf yellowing with brilliant tints.
Reduction in seed production.
Mottling and yellowing start at the leaf tips and progress to the center of the veins, which often remain green.
Symptoms usually show first on older leaves.
Leaves may suddenly drop without withering .
Causes cupped leaves.

PLANT TAKEN BY:
Soil and leaves.

DEFICIENCY RECOVERY BY:
Energy-9 or Enmag or magnesium sulfate, and dolomitic limestone (Microcel).

MANGANESE

FUNCTION:
Catalyst for enzyme systems involved in breakdown of carbohydrates and nitrogen metabolism.
Activator for enzymes in growth process.
Important for chlorophyll formation.
Chlorophyll synthesis, acts as co-enzyme.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS:
Causes different symptoms in different plants but commonly causes leaves to turn yellow while veins stay green.
Unlike magnesium deficiency, manganese deficiency symptoms seldom develop so far as to produce interveinal chlorosis, the chlorosis normally being confined to leaf margins.
Interveinal chlorosis of leaves followed by brown spots produces a checkered effect.
The other distinguishing characteristic is that manganese deficiencies appear on the oldest leaves first, and the finest leaf veins do not remain green as they do with iron deficiencies.
White or gray specks may appear on leaves.
Similar to iron deficiency.

PLANT TAKEN BY:
Soil and leaves.

DEFICIENCY RECOVERY BY:
AXIS-Mn or Energy or Manganese Sulphet

MOLYBDENUM

FUNCTION:
Protein synthesis.
Essential to nitrogen fixation (nitrate enzymes) and for formation of root nodules in beans and peas.
Helps in the use of nitrogen.
Plays an important role in development.


DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS:
Pale leaves look like nitrogen deficiency with some marginal leaf chlorosis.
Yellow mottling and dead spots on leaves.
Interveinal chlorosis on older or midstem leaves.
New leaves may twist (whiptail) and cup.
In some plants, the growing tips are distorted or killed.
Leaves appear blue-green.

PLANT TAKEN BY:
Soil

DEFICIENCY RECOVERY BY:
AXIS-Mo

NITROGEN

FUNCTION:
Photosynthesis, cell growth and development.
Necessary part of all proteins, enzymes and metabolic processes.
Involved in synthesis and transfer of energy.
Constituent of proteins and chlorophyll.
Increase seed and fruit productions.
Stimulates leaf and stem growth.
Keeps leaves green.
Improve quality of leaf and forage crops.
Rapid growth.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS:
Reduced growth, smaller and pale yellowish green leaves.
Yellowing of foliage begins with older leaves first since nitrogen is readily moved from old to new growth.
Firing of tips and margins beginning with mature leaves.
Lower leaves turn yellow and die.
New growth sparse, undersized.
Plants grow slowly and may drop foliage prematurely.
Stunted growth, delayed maturity.
Roots are overlarge.

PLANT TAKEN BY:
Soil and air

DEFICIENCY RECOVERY BY:
Urea or CAN or Ammonium Shulphat or ENERGY 19 : 19 : 19

PHOSPHORUS

FUNCTION:
Essential to photosynthesis, respiration and storing carbohydrates (energy).
Involved in cell division.
Stimulates root development.
Involved in formation of all oils, sugars, starches, etc.
Important for early plant establishment, germination and growth of seeds, flowering and fruit ripening.Withstanding stress; effects rapid growth.
Greater hardiness and disease resistance.
Proper plant maturation.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS:
Stunted growth; sparse foliage growth.
Reduced growth and small leaves that drop early, starting with the oldest leaves
Leaf edges often turn scorched brown.
Leaves may develop spots.
Leaf edges roll and burn.
Leaf color is dull, bluish green that turns purplish or bronzy.
Shoots are short and spindly
Reddish purple leaves (older tissue), stems and branches.
Younger leaves may show red pigmentation.
Reduced yields of seeds and fruits.

PLANT TAKEN BY:
Soil

DEFICIENCY RECOVERY BY:
DAP or SSP or ENERGY 19 : 19 : 19

POTASSIUM

FUNCTION:
Maintains water regulation in cells, cell strength, transpiration, photosynthesis, carbohydrate (energy) formation and storage, and fruit quality.
Helps build protein, photosynthesis and fruit quality.
Helps increase meristematic activity, resulting in better growth.
Activator of many enzymes; open and close stomata.
Promotes general vigor (increased resistant to disease, drought and frost) and sturdy growth.


DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS:
Stunted growth with leaves close together; starting with older leaves.
Tips and edges turn scorched brown or purple and leaf edges roll.
Older foliage is yellowish and may have brown tips and margins near leaf edge or between veins.
Leaf burn, spotting and mottling on lower leaves follows poor growth.
Foliage growth is sparse.
Reduced yields.
Weak root systems and stalk.

PLANT TAKEN BY:
Soil

DEFICIENCY RECOVERY BY:
Energy 19 : 19 : 19
MOP or SOP

SULPHUR

FUNCTION:
Chlorophyll formation.
Essential for protein production.
Promotes activity and development of enzymes and vitamins.
Improves root growth, seed production and frost hardiness.
Increases vitamins and proteins in plants.
Responsible for odor and flavor of some legumes and brassicas.
Promotes nodule formation on legumes, growth, seed production and frost hardiness.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS:
Slow growth with small round leaves that roll upward and are stiff and brittle.
Leaves drop off and tip buds die.
Leaves go pale yellow (chlorosis) with the whole plant being affected, though often younger leaves.

PLANT TAKEN BY:
Soil & Foliar

DEFICIENCY RECOVERY BY:
Microcel or Urja or SSP or Sulphur granulls/powder

ZINC

FUNCTION:
Essential for transformation of carbohydrates.
Essential for growth regulation (plant size and maturity).
Essential in regulating sugar consumption.
Necessary for production of proteins.
Improves efficiency of chlorophyll function.
Important in enzyme systems, particularly for absorption and usage.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS:
Leaf yellowing between veins, usually with purple or dead spots.
Causes bright interveinal chlorosis in young and mid-shoot leaves, usually with purple or dead spots starting with older leaves.
Leaves are close together, reduced in size, with distorted or puckered margins.
New growth may be delayed.
New leaves may be small, narrow.
Small, deformed leaves that fail to elongate (resetting).
Fruit trees show resetting dieback, little leaves and premature leaf fall.
Fruiting is reduced.

PLANT TAKEN BY:
Soil

DEFICIENCY RECOVERY BY:
AXIS-Zn or Energy zinc oxide, zinc sulfate


Miscellaneous notes from class:
Fertilizing: macronutrients-mostly added in the soil
micronutrients-foliar feeding is most effective
Balance is needed between calcium, potassium and magnesium.
Balance is needed between phosphorus and nitrogen; they do affect each other.

Why Chelated Micronutrient?

1) To avoid precipitation of metal
2) To keep the metal soluble
3) To avoid blocking metal to soil
4) To avoid interaction with P(Phosphors)
5) To avoid precipitation in hard water
6) To increase metal transportation in the leaves after penetration
7) To mix with all pesticides